Impact of Environmental Pollution on living beings the day goes on. Negative impact of adverse health, especially for the human body to cause disease and a wide range of issues.
Both diseases are directly perceived or illness arising from the accumulation of pollutants in the human body.

Burning oil and coal fuels in motor vehicles and industry led to increased levels of CO2 in the air. This gas is also produced from forest fires, which will be assembled in Earth's atmosphere. If there are so many, CO2 gas will prevent the heat reflected from the Earth to the atmosphere so that the heat will be absorbed and reflected back to Earth. As a result, the temperature on Earth is getting warmer. This is called the greenhouse effect (green house effect). In addition to CO2, other gases that cause the greenhouse effect of CFCs from aerosol, as well as methane gas from animal waste decomposition.

The greenhouse effect can cause the temperature to rise globally, or better known as global warming. Due to global warming, global climate patterns changed. Sea level rises, as a result of the melting of ice at the poles so that small islands become submerged. The situation will affect the balance of ecosystems and harm living things, including humans.
Another consequence is the air pollution caused by acid rain. If acid rain occurs continuously, causing soil, lake, or river water into acid. Circumstances that will result in plants and microorganisms that live in them disturbed and die. This of course will affect the balance of ecosystems and human life.

Impact of Environmental Pollution

1. Extinction of Species
Pollutants are very harmful to aquatic biota residing on the mainland as well. Different types of animals were poisoned, then it will die. Various animal species that do not have the same immunity. There are sensitive, some are resistant. Young animals, animals that larvae are sensitive to contaminants. There are animals that can adapt so resistant to pollutants, those that do not. Although animals adapt, to know that the level of animal adaptation has its limits. When the limit is exceeded, the animal will die.

2. Rapid development of the pest
Excessive use of insecticides led to the death of predators. With the extinction of predators so that insect pests will develop quickly and without control.

3. Environmental Balance Disorders
Extinction of certain species can alter the pattern of interactions in an ecosystem. Food chains, food webs and energy flow to be changed. As a result, the balance of disturbed environments. Recycling materials and biogeochemical cycles to be disrupted.

4. Declining Soil Fertility
The use of deadly insecticide soil fauna. It can lower soil fertility. Continuous use of fertilizers can cause soil to become acidic. It also can reduce soil fertility. Likewise, the occurrence of acid rain.

5. Toxicity and Disease
People who eat vegetables, fish, and contaminated food can be poisoned. Some are dead, some liver damage, kidney, cancer, nervous system damage, and even causing defects in their descendants.

6. Biological concentration
The process of increasing the body's levels of pollutants through biological beings known as the concentration (in English known as biomagnificition).

7. The formation of Ozone Hole and the Greenhouse Effect
The formation of the ozone hole and the greenhouse effect is a global problem that is felt by all humanity. This is because contaminants can spread and have an impact elsewhere.

WHAT IS THE SAVANNA | Savanna is a grassland with widely scattered trees and shrubs.

Savanna is a grassland with widely scattered trees and shrubs. Most savannas are in the tropics and lie between deserts and rain forests. Certain grasslands in temperate areas are also sometimes called savannas. This article discusses tropical savannas. For information about other savannas.

Savannas cover more than two-fifths of Africa and large areas of Australia, India, and South America. They occur in regions that have both rainy and dry seasons.

Most savannas receive from 30 to 40 inches (76 to 100 centimeters) of rain annually. But some get as little as 10 inches (25 centimeters) of rain, and others get as much as 60 inches (150 centimeters). Grasses on the driest savannas, where trees are widely scattered, grow only a few inches high. On more humid savannas, grasses grow several feet tall, and trees are more abundant. Grasses on the wettest savannas may reach heights of 10 feet (3 meters) or more.

Most savanna grasses grow in clumps and do not form a continuous cover of sod. Other nonwoody plants, including members of the composite and legume families, grow among the grasses. Acacias, baobabs, and palms are some common savanna trees.

The growth of trees on savannas is limited by the dry season, which may last up to five months. When the dry season begins, grasses stop growing and turn brown, and most trees shed their leaves. Only the most drought-resistant trees can survive. During the dry season, frequent brush fires destroy many young trees. Grasses have extensive root systems that survive the fires and send up fresh shoots as soon as the rains return. On some savannas, poor drainage and other soil conditions also favor the growth of grasses instead of trees.

A wide variety of animals live on savannas. Large herds of antelope and zebras graze on the African savannas. Cheetahs, hyenas, lions, and other meat-eaters prey on these animals. Many rodents, birds, reptiles, and insects also inhabit savannas.

WHAT IS THE TROPICS | Tropics Are The Regions Of The Earth

Tropics are the regions of the earth that lie within about 1,600 miles (2,570 kilometers) north and 1,600 miles south of the equator. Two imaginary lines, the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn, form the boundaries of the tropics. The Tropic of Cancer is 23° 27' north of the equator, and the Tropic of Capricorn is 23° 27' south of the equator. These lines mark the northernmost and southernmost places on the earth where the sun ever shines directly overhead.

Most places in the tropics have warm to hot temperatures the year around. Tropical places near sea level are hot because every day the sun's rays shine almost straight down at noon. Such direct rays produce higher temperatures than do slanted rays.

The temperature does not change much in the tropics because the amount of daylight differs little from season to season. At the equator, the sun shines about 12 hours a day. At the edges of the tropics, daylight varies from about 101/2 hours a day in winter to about 131/2 hours a day in summer. Places at the edges of the tropics have cool periods in winter. Tropical places that are located at high altitudes are cool because the temperature drops about 31/2 °F per 1,000 feet (2 °C per 300 meters) of elevation.

Many tropical areas have definite rainy and dry seasons. Most places near the equator get much rain during all seasons and are covered by tropical rain forests. Farther to the north and south, one or two short dry seasons occur yearly. Such areas have forests of trees that lose their leaves during these dry seasons. Areas even farther from the equator have one long dry season each year. These areas are covered by savannas (grasslands with scattered trees and shrubs).


Clay is a substance present in most kinds of soil. Geologists define clay as extremely small particles of soil that measure less than 4 microns, or 0.000157 inch, in diameter. The word clay also refers to earthy material composed of certain kinds of silicate minerals that have been broken down by weathering.

Clay consists mainly of tiny, sheetlike particles of alumina and silica bound together by water. Various other materials in clay may give it different colors. For example, iron oxide may color clay red. Clays that contain various amounts of carbon compounds may be different shades of gray.

The clay in soil has a vital role in farming. For example, it absorbs ammonia and other gases needed for plant growth. Clay also helps soil retain minerals necessary for plant growth. Without clay, soil would not keep its fertility from year to year. However, too much clay makes soil stiff and heavy and prevents the movement of air and water through soil.

There are two general types of clay, based on how the substance reacts when mixed with water. Expandable clay swells when water is added to it. Expandable clay can absorb so much water that the clay itself becomes a liquid. Nonexpandable clay becomes soft but not liquid when mixed with water.

The petroleum industry uses expandable clays called bentonites to make drilling mud. The petroleum industry also uses another kind of expandable clay as a chemical agent in the process of oil refining.

Ceramics industries use nonexpandable clay in making bricks, pottery, tile, and many other products. For example, pottery makers mold moist clay into almost any shape and bake it in hot ovens called kilns. Heat removes the water from the clay, which becomes permanently hard and cannot be softened by adding water to it. The whitest kind of clay, kaolin or china clay, is used in making porcelain. The paper industry also uses kaolin, which serves as a filler that adds whiteness and strength to paper. In addition, kaolin gives some kinds of paper a smooth, shiny surface. Fire clay contains a large percentage of silica and can stand high temperatures. It is used in making firebrick and furnace linings.


Soil is essential for the growth of plants, which in turn provide food for animals and human beings. Soil consists chiefly of minerals mixed with organic (plant and animal) matter. Soil forms from rocks and similar materials that are broken up into smaller particles by physical and chemical processes called weathering. The particles become mixed with humus, a substance formed from plant and animal remains. Bacteria in the soil break down the humus into nutrients needed by plants.

The thin layer of fertile soil that covers much of the land was formed by natural processes over thousands of years. But in many areas, careless human practices have destroyed the soil in just a few years.

Rain, wind, and other natural forces gradually wear away the soil. This process, called erosion, normally occurs slowly. But people have greatly increased the rate of soil erosion by removing natural vegetation to clear land for construction projects, mines, or farmland. Plants protect soil from rain and wind. Their roots form an underground network that holds soil in place. Plants also absorb some rain water so that less runs off the land. Thus, fewer soil particles are washed away.

Soil erosion has long been a major conservation problem, especially on croplands. In the United States, soil erosion has severely damaged millions of acres or hectares of land. Much of the soil eroded each year ends up in lakes, streams, and rivers.

Farmers can reduce soil erosion by planting trees and leaving patches of natural vegetation between their fields and on other unplowed areas. The trees serve as windbreaks, and the plant cover slows the runoff of rain water. Many farmers also practice such soil conservation methods as contour plowing, strip cropping, terracing, and minimum tillage.

Contour plowing is practiced on sloping land. Farmers plow across a slope, instead of up and down. The plowed soil forms ridges across the slope. The ridges help slow the flow of rain water.

Strip cropping also helps slow the flow of rain water down a slope. Farmers plant grass, clover, or other close-growing plants in strips between bands of corn, wheat, or other grain crops. Grass and clover hold water and protect the soil better than grain crops do.

Terracing helps prevent soil erosion on hillsides. Farmers build wide, flat rows called terraces on the hillsides. A terraced hillside resembles a large staircase. The terraces hold rain water and so prevent it from washing down the hillside and forming gullies.

Minimum tillage, also called conservation tillage, consists of several methods of reducing the number of times a field must be tilled. Normally, farmers till their fields three or more times each growing season. One form of minimum tillage is called zero-tillage or no-till. After harvesting a crop, farmers leave the residues (remains) from the crop on the field as a covering for the soil, instead of plowing them under. During the next planting, the farmer prepares the seedbed with a device that leaves the residues between the crop rows. Zero-tillage not only provides cover for the soil but also conserves tractor fuel.

Another major conservation problem on farmlands is declining soil fertility, which is caused partly by planting the same crop in a field year after year. Corn, wheat, and other grain crops drain the soil of an essential chemical called nitrogen if they are grown on the same field for several years. Farmers can maintain the fertility of the soil by practicing crop rotation, in which crops are alternated from year to year. The rotation crop is usually a legume, such as alfalfa or soybeans. Unlike corn and wheat, legumes restore nitrogen to the soil.

Some farmers add plant remains or manure (animal wastes) to their fields to enrich the soil. Many use chemical fertilizers for this purpose. However, excessive use of some chemical fertilizers may decrease the ability of bacteria to decay humus and produce nutrients naturally. As a result, the soil may gradually harden and lose much of its ability to absorb rain water. The soil then erodes more easily. In addition, the chemicals from fertilizers may wash out of the soil and enter lakes, streams, and even wells, polluting the water. Excessive use of pesticides causes similar problems.

A common problem on irrigated farmland is the build-up of various chemical salts in the soil. Most irrigation water contains small amounts of these salts. In time, the salts accumulate in the soil and may reduce plant growth and ruin cropland.


The soils of farmlands, grazing lands, and forestlands provide many products and recreational areas. Soil conservationists work to ensure the wise use of these soils.

Wise use of farmlands involves maintaining a high level of nutrients and organic matter in cultivated soils. Farmers add organic matter to the soil by plowing under certain green plants. They also add fertilizers and rotate crops to replace nutrients that leaching and growing plants remove. In addition, farmers plow and plant their fields in ways that control erosion.

Grazing lands that have been overgrazed also suffer from erosion. Overgrazing decreases the amounts of plant life and organic matter in the soil, and the soil erodes easily. Ranchers conserve grazing lands by limiting the time that their herds graze in one area.

Forestlands also must be protected from erosion. In some cases, foresters leave unusable branches and other parts of trees on the forest floor to add organic matter to the soil. They also develop large groups of trees whose roots protect the soil by holding it in place against wind and water erosion.

MANGO TREE is an excellent source of vitamins A and C

Mango (Mangifera sp) is a fruit that grows in tropical regions throughout the world. It serves as the main food of many people in tropical countries and is often called the king of tropical fruits. Mangoes are eaten fresh or are used in making desserts, preserves, and some other foods. The fruit is an excellent source of vitamins A and C.

Most mangoes are kidney-shaped, oval, or round. They vary from about 2 to 10 inches (5 to 25 centimeters) in length and from 2 ounces to 5 pounds (57 grams to 2.3 kilograms) in weight. Mangoes have a smooth, leathery skin that surrounds a juicy, yellow or orange pulp and a hard inner pit. The skin may be green, purple, or various shades of orange, red, or yellow. Many mangoes have tough fibers in their pulp, and some of the fruits have an unpleasant turpentinelike odor. However, mangoes grown commercially have a soft, fiberless pulp and a sweet, spicy taste and odor.

The mango tree is an evergreen that grows about 70 feet (21 meters) tall. It has long, slender leaves and small, pinkish-white flowers. The fruit develops from the ovaries of the blossoms and ripens about five months after the flowers bloom.

Mangoes were first cultivated about 4,000 years ago in India and the Malay Archipelago. In the 1700's and 1800's, European explorers brought mangoes from India to other tropical countries. Today, farmers grow mangoes in Brazil, India, Mexico, and the Philippines. In the United States, mangoes grow in Florida and in Hawaii.


Most of the natural forests in Indonesia, including in tropical rain forests. Tropical rainforests have characteristics that are different from other forests. Indonesia is an archipelago that has over 17,500 islands spread from Sabang to Merauke. Diverse place to grow from forests in Indonesia make Indonesia's tropical forests have a special characteristic of the forest than in the other hemisphere.

Many experts mendiskripsi tropical rainforests as a specific ecosystem, which can only stand firmly with the links between the constituent components as a unified whole. The linkage between the constituent components allows certain forms of forest structure that can provide a specific function as well as economic stability, high biological productivity, hydrological cycles are adequate and others. The reality on the groung, forest type has a very low soil fertility, soil composed of negatively charged clay particles such as kaolinite and illite low.

The condition of forest land also shows the uniqueness and distinctive characteristics. The biological activity of the soil rests on a layer of soil over the top (top soil). The biological activity of these about 80% are in top soil only. The facts indicate that the tropical rainforest ecosystems are fragile ecosystem, because each component can not stand alone. Besides, it was found that some other phenomenon is the existence of high diversity between sites or groups of both the forest and the growth of vegetation (Marsono, 1991).

From these characteristics make tropical forest in Indonesia is very prone to degradation. Tropical forest destruction in Indonesia is estimated at 2 million hectares per year. Tropical forest destruction in Indonesia is caused by various factors both from parties only seek profit alone or from the way management of tropical forests is wrong, because they do not understand about the characteristics of tropical forest itself.

Reduction efforts and prevention of tropical forest destruction in Indonesia is an urgent matter. Otherwise tropical forests will be lost due to logging activities, mining, human settlements, agricultural land clearing, forest fires and conversion to other forms.
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