The birds of temperate North America live in seven main kinds of habitats: (1) urban areas, (2) forests and woodlands, (3) grasslands, (4) brushy areas, (5) deserts, (6) inland waters and marshes, and (7) seacoasts. Some North American birds live north of the temperate zone-that is, in the Arctic.
Birds of urban areas
Many birds will nest in urban areas if these areas have nesting places similar to those of the birds' natural habitat. In addition to pigeons and starlings, such birds include robins, blue jays, mockingbirds, cardinals, wrens, common crows, grackles, and house sparrows. Cardinals and mockingbirds usually nest in shrubs or low trees. Robins and blue jays nest in shade trees. Wrens nest inside tree holes, bird boxes, and even mailboxes. House sparrows and pigeons, both introduced from Europe, rank among the most common birds in North American cities. They will nest in almost any small opening. Such birds remain a familiar sight even in the downtown areas of big cities.